Head-Smashed-In Buffalo Jump, Alberta, Canada
A place where hundreds of bison stampede to their deaths clear off the brink of a cliff? Then locals carve up every last bit of the carcasses? Well that’s cool – in an grisly, sadistic, do-you-really-need-all-those-buffalo sort of way.
Practiced by natives on the plains of North America for close to 6,000 years, the custom was a huge part of their livelihood, and the proceeds from these mass slaughters resulted in the mainstay of their winter diet.
So what made them stop? Well, in no particular order: horses, beavers, and the white man. And of course, a brink of a different kind – extinction.
But I’ll get to all that in a bit.
Give Me a Plain, Where the Buffalo’s Slain
So how did the natives manage to lure the buffalo over the edge? The folks at UNESCO (Head-Smashed-In Buffalo Jump has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1981) described it best:
“To start the hunt, ‘buffalo runners’, young men trained in animal behaviour, would entice the herd to follow them by imitating the bleating of a lost calf. As the buffalo moved closer to the drive lanes (long lines of stone cairns were built to help the hunters direct the buffalo to the cliff kill site), the hunters would circle behind and upwind of the herd and scare the animals by shouting and waving robes. As the buffalo stampeded towards the edge of the cliff, the animals in front would try to stop but the sheer weight of the herd pressing from behind would force the buffalo over the cliff.”
The Blackfoot Indians had a keen understanding of the land and the nature of the bison. And the buffalo had two key weaknesses they were able to take advantage of – poor eyesight (they thought the rock formations were solid walls) and parental instinct (their concern for the lost calf).
Indians: 1, Buffalo: 0.
The tastefully designed interpretive centre at the former kill site is well worth the $10 admission (5 bucks for kids). It’s built into the hill alongside the cliff and meshes perfectly with the environment.
So how do horses, beavers, and whitey figure into all this? You see white men liked to please white ladies, so they hunted beavers for their fur (well THAT didn’t quite come out right). When beaver numbers dwindled, whitey took a shining to buffalo fur. And since whitey also introduced the horse into mix, making hunting for buffalo a heck of a lot easier, native Indians abandoned the traditional method, and the buffalo numbers took a serious decline.
At one point, estimates had between 70 million to 150 million bison roaming the plains. At their lowest point, less than 1000.
They’re hovering somewhere around 500,000 nowadays.
Located about 2 hours south of Calgary, the area around Head-Smashed-In Buffalo Jump offers some pretty spectacular views. If you want to take your time to explore the area, the closest hotel options are in Fort Macleod, but there are some cozy camping options available closer to the site.
So how did Head-Smashed-In Buffalo Jump get its name?
It’s not what you think.
Legend has it that a young boy wandered too close the bottom of the cliff during one of the hunts. When they found his body…well…you can pretty much guess the rest from there. The Blackfoot Indians called it Head-Smashed-In Buffalo Jump ever since.
What’s worse? I left here craving a bison burger.